| Rave Flyers Index
| chapter 1
| chapter 2
| chapter 3
Chapter 2 - Flyers
2.1 - Perrenial ephemera
During 1992, every inch of my bedroom walls were covered in brightly coloured flyers. I picked them up in clothes and record shops, they were thrust into my hands by pushy promoters and bouncers at the end of every rave I went to, I swapped them with people at college, I even picked one off the floor once. I used to pore over them, after all, they were the only indication of what the night was going to be like. For me, flyers were an integral part of the dance music culture that I belonged to; they were part of the build up of excitement, part of the special experience of the culture and afterwards were trophies of my night.
Although the club scene I was part of can be seen as coming from the Acid House culture of 1988, the history of flyers in relation to music can be traced back to the sixties when theatre chains would promote package tours with simple informational designs.(1) Flyers were employed in punk culture and featured provocative, DIY, photocopied imagery to communicate the culture's aesthetics. During the eighties, flyers were used by club promoters to help build a venue or a club night's identity.(2) Flyers were pieces of direct marketing and were seen by promoters as the best way to build a specific kind of clientele for their club night.(3) With other kinds of advertisement, the whole cross-section of the community will see it and it will only hit a small number of the young people it was aimed at. With flyers, they can be put right into the hand of the club's intended audience, guaranteeing that they will at least look at it. The flyer has been so successful as a relatively low budget marketing strategy that it would be used to promote dance music events right up until today.
In late sixties San Francisco, posters were the new form of communication. In seventies Britain, photocopied agit-prop was the information mode in punk culture. A new culture demands new forms of communication.(4) And the flyer took the role of not simply selling a club night to young people, but as a piece of ephemera, as a collectible piece of a whole culture, it provided a visual narrative of the new, growing and changing club scene of Britain.
"The real stories of people's lives is not to be told in the news headlines, but in the stuff of everyday. Because it freezes the moment, the ephemeral can be perrenial."(5)
2.2 - Style in Transit
The baseline for any flyer is information.(6) Flyers were distributed a short time before the actual night, telling the clubber where the night would be, who would be DJing and how much entry would cost - after the club night it would be out of date. "Because they promoted one off events, the average flyer would become irrelevant after only one week".(7) This transitory nature of flyers has meant that they are consistently up to date with all aspects of the culture that they are appealing to. Flyers are "a rapid, constantly changing form of communication".(8) Their style changed progressively and quickly, just like the music and fashion of club culture did.
Flyers had a short shelf life and this allowed designers a great scope for experimentation in the same way that record covers do: "Over the past thirty years the album cover has provided designers with an outlet for unbridled creative expression, visual experimentation and sheer bloody weirdness!"(9) In the same way, "the ticket offered a cheap and portable space for constant experimentation."(10)
This scope for experimentation on flyers is also brought about by the fact that the designer is not working for a big corporation who would not care for expressive, unusual design. Influential designer, Trevor Jackson, produced many flyers but also record covers associated with dance music culture and he "depended on smaller independent (record) labels to serve as laboratories for the development of his style."(11) Graphic designers were working for young promoters who would allow, in fact encourage, creativity in their designs.
Influential designer, Mark Jackson explains: "I've stayed underground and I'm happy with what I've done. Because once you become successful, your art isn't yours any more; you have to start serving clients. Their ideas of what they want to see are different from yours. And, at the end of the day, they're paying the bills. So you have to do what they want."(12)
These young designers did not have to follow any norms of graphic design and so were not restricted by any kind of conformism. This can be seen in relation to the whole culture of dance music finding alternatives to constrictions predetermined by tradition.
2.3 - Grassroots
This was a grassroots affair - design made by people who were part of the culture for others in that culture. And who else could know most about what the flyer should represent, who it should be aimed at and what the flyers audience would react positively to other than someone who was involved in that culture themselves. "Designers like Trevor Jackson were part of the nightlife their tickets advertised."(13)
"I'm out clubbing at least twice a week," explains Jackson, "so I know what I'm talking about."(14)
This trait of flyer design has meant that they have always kept up to date with their culture because the people who are producing them are not any out-of-touch, out-of-date designer who has no real knowledge of the youth culture, they are young people who are still going out and being affected and influenced by club culture.
The entrepreneurial society brought about by Thatcherite rule in the eighties encouraged these young designers to "do it for themselves". This meant that graphic design was being taken from the privileged, experienced, corporate designer to the young, street-wise clubber. It was taking the elitism out of graphic design and therefore opening it up to a wider field of possibilities. "The best design coming out now," says Trevor Jackson, "is exactly like the best music; it's made by people without faces or massive egos."(15)
Here we can see how flyer design relates to Acid House and dance music and culture in general; it is not opposing a traditionalistic society, it is simply finding a way around it by ignoring it altogether. These anonymous designers were, consciously or not, rejecting established notions and rules of graphic design marketing. "What such lively eyes seek to frame is a fresh British design. And they're proud to see their arts make a break with the established custodians of power."(16)
"In these respects, the style-conscious world of the dancefloor reprised the most romantic tenet of British punk experience: the conviction that absolutely anyone can do it."(17)
2.4 - Photocopied tat
This DIY ethic was also caused by other factors. Budgetary constraints were often a big consideration for club promoters so professional designers could not be afforded. Far from being a hindrance this low budget production served in making flyer design of a nature that appealed more intimately to the clubber. George Georgiou, who designed flyers for some of the very first Acid House nights in London, realised this fact that an expensive budget is not needed to appeal to the punter: "The best ideas come about due to tight or nonexistent budgets."(18) "That's the lesson of the dance floor," he says, "you don't need fancy stuff."(19)
"Some of the best clubs had the cheapest bits of photocopied tat."(20) Who needed expensive marketing when a young, freelance designer, often waiting for a break in graphic design, could do the job cheaper and the end result would be much more in tune with the audience and therefore would bring in a bigger, more suitable crowd of clubbers.
"It's a great opportunity," says Georgiou, "for designers and artists to rise to the challenge and get their work seen."(21)
2.5 - Raw to the core
Another factor that led to the need for low flyer budgets was the illegality of some of the earlier Acid House events. When illegal warehouse parties were being organised, the whereabouts of the venue would not be finalised or released until the last minute to avoid any unwanted attention. Flyers had to get into the right hands (ie. not a policeman's) and the information had to be distributed quickly. "Flyers are so cheap and so quick that they can broadcast information about illegal events before the authorities cotton on."(22) This can be seen in the crude scribbled flyer for an illegal party in Kirby (plate 1).
The rushed, cheap graphics of this flyer do not reduce its appeal to its audience. The underground nature of this flyer adds to the exclusivity, the mystique of the event and the sense of belonging to a subculture of the reader.
"This (kind of flyer design) established a context and an urgency for this form - the handbill recast for a different time."(23) This "pirate" graphic design - flyers that operated on the edge of legality - was the mode in which flyers would continue: always with a raw, subversive edge that mirrored the music and events that they advertised.
2.6 - Are you Experienced?
As was examined in Chapter 1.3, the music of Acid House had no originary subject. These flyers were not advertising a rock group or any pop idol - there was no singular subject for them to express - they were selling, in effect, an experience.
"Whereas in the late seventies, the group was at the centre of activity, from the late eighties on, the club and DJ became the fount of graphic design."(24) DJ lists are common to flyers and occasionally a photo of the club is featured too. Both of these can be seen on the inside of the Andromeda V flyer (plate 2.2).
But the DJs were not like pop stars that could be put on posters; they could not be the main subject of the flyer, neither could a photo of the club, because these were only part of the whole rave experience. Designers had to find something else with which to sell the club night. Instead, flyers focussed on expressing the experience of the rave rather than any singular subject. These designers who were going out clubbing were visualising what they were feeling.(25) They "were part of the nightlife their tickets advertised; they sought to translate this leisure aesthetic and its language as both continued to evolve."(26) This is what makes flyers so expressive of their era - because they were more than just adverts directed at a youth market; they were a tangible, visual interpretation of a subculture's experience.
2.7 - Just Express Yourself!
So, what devices were designers using to express the experience of the rave when they could not focus on any originary subject? The abandonment and pleasure through transcendence into an altered state, by whatever means, that was the main reason behind Acid House and later club culture and music, found a visual expression in flyers. In most flyers, references to this pursuit of escapism from normal life can be found, but they are manifest in different ways.
Many flyers took on a surreal escapism where the viewer is "taken in" to an alternative reality where everyday restrictions, like time and space, bare no meaning or are distorted. This can be seen in the Dance Planet flyer (plate 4) where the viewer is "sucked in" by this big, colour flyer into its false landscape where space is stretched: the viewer is taken away from the world into an alternative reality. The catchline at the bottom, "takes you into the pleasure zone", reinforces this idea of abandonment.Turning the flyer over the viewer finds this mystic land is in: Halesowen!
This surrealism took other forms: Dali's paintings were taken and used in association with dance all-nighters (plate 3) to express the bizarre, visionary, dreamlike, somewhat disturbing escapism from everyday life that the rave encapsulated.
Time was often expressed in these flyers, but usually in a distorted, altered manner (plate 5, plate 12). In the flyer for Time (plate 5), one can see this distortion as the Time logo is sucked into oblivion rendering it meaningless, something that, from my experiences of these disorientating raves, was a common phenomena. This imagery is evoking the loss and abandonment that is part of the appeal of the rave, and is also part of the music and culture.
Many flyers appealed to the clubbers sense of childlike fun (plate 8, plate 13) as outlined in Chapter 1.7. In the Smarties flyer (plate 8), the confectionery item is parodied; drug references aside, this flyer is appealing to the clubber's desire to escape from the pressures of adult life, an escape from the everyday through loss of inhibitions.
A science fiction theme can be seen in many flyers (plate 4, plate 6, plate 12, plate 14). The Vision flyer (plate 6), quite similar in effect to the Dance Planet flyer (plate 4), has a distinct "spacey" feel to it, depicting a futuristic, somewhat tacky, dreamscape where the viewer is taken off the earth into outer space. In the two bottom corners of this flyer are photos of the Blade Runner sci-fi film set - the blurb on the reverse side promised that these would be used as decoration for the huge event; however, I attended this all-nighter and the only similarity between it and Blade Runner was the continual torrential rain! So, clearly, this use of sci-fi imagery is another expression of the clubber's desire to temporarily escape from reality and is parallel to the effect of dance music in its sensaural surrounding and removal of the listener into a fictional reality.
Flyers often opted for spiritualistic, paganistic imagery. Paganism is the belief in more spiritualistic values, the worshipping of nature, the earth, moon and sun. "Again and again one can see the sun (in flyers) or read the words "A Midsummer Night's Dream" - that time of the year when energy is at it's peak and reason flies over the moon."(27) This paganism can be seen in flyers like the one for Sunrise (plate 7); it was in logos like the Eclipse one (plate 3, plate 10), and in event names like Energy, Evolution, Solstice (plate 9), Raindance (plate 14), and New Age. Paganism can be seen in this context as the escape from a materialistic status quo, reverting to more spiritualistic, New-Age beliefs in response to an increasingly money, power orientated society. Once again, this was what Acid House culture was doing - not opposing society or government, but ignoring it and providing alternative, if temporary, realities.
This paganistic, reverential worship inherent in flyer imagery also implies the togetherness, the sense of belonging to one entity that was part of the hedonistic experience of the all-nighter: the loss of the self into the dancefloor crowd, "a place where nobody is but everybody belongs"(28), all worshipping the music together. This kind of reverence is implied in the Solstice flyer (plate 9) with the crowd melting into one, worshipping the sun through dance.
2.8 - Mind Blown
With flyers following their culture so closely, it is obvious that drugs and experiences of the effects of drugs, being such an important aspect of the culture, would be interpreted in flyer design. All of the flyers featured in this dissertation can be said to be attributed to the influence of drugs. Ecstasy and LSD's impetus in transcendence and their distortion of time, space and reality can be seen in the bizarre, surreal flyers (plate 3, plate 4, plate 5, plate 6, plate 7, plate 9, plate 11, plate 12, plate 13, plate 14). Ecstasy's lowering of inhibitions can be seen in the playful, childlike flyers (plate 8, plate 13), and its aid in spirituality is manifest in the paganistic flyers (plate 7, plate 9). For legal, and marketing reasons, the drug reference is usually ambiguous.
Flyers often made sly references to drugs that would be recognised by those belonging to the subculture, the young people who would understand the slang, and not be recognised by authorities or parents. This can be seen in the Smarties flyer (plate 8) - the round, brightly coloured sweeties cheekily hinting at pills and a catchline to back this up: "Only Smart 'Es Go To RockWorld". These references serve in increasing the feeling of belonging of the viewer into the subculture. The viewer is made to feel special because they can understand or decipher these obscured messages, that their parents can't, and therefore can claim to be part of a subculture, which has a certain romantic appeal in itself. In this way, drug induced references can be seen not just as an expression of the culture, but also as a
marketing strategy.(29) And with event names over the years such as Coming On Strong, Mind Blown and Mashed, references were not always so obscure!
The visual effect of the drugs that were associated with Acid House and dance music culture were also translated on to flyers. Fractals - swirly, computer generated patterns - were featured in many flyers, like the one for the Eclipse (plate 10). This bright, colourful, synthetic yet organic, psychedelic imagery was used to mimic the visual experience of LSD, or maybe just to express the stereotypical idea of what drugs do to you.
2.9 - Psychedelic Posters
Such colourful, organic, visual stimulus as fractals could be seen as the modern day equivalent of the psychedelic posters of late sixties San Francisco. "Flyers took on a visual language directly related to sixties psychedelic design."(30) Flyers for Acid House and dance events had parallels with Psychedelia, the same as the music and culture did, both visually, theoretically and when put in a social context.
On a basic level, both flyers and Psychedelia were advertising dance events, directly targeting a small section of society - the young. They were both produced on a low budget by young people in the subculture for others their age; a low key, DIY, grassroots affair - designers with an intimate knowledge of the experience they were interpreting, seeking to find new means of communication without complying to existing norms of graphic design.
Like flyers, psychedelic posters were focussing on visualising the experience of the event rather than showing any band or pop idol. Psychedelic posters sought to surround the viewer taking them in so they would be lost in the posters aura, the same effect that psychedelic music had. "This was an appeal to the senses rather than to reason."(31)
Both eras' culture, and music was directly connected to drugs, as examined in Chapter 1. In late sixties San Francisco, LSD was the drug, and its opening up of the mind, breaking down of social barriers & spiritualism, not to mention its vivid visual effects, were all expressed in psychedelic posters in the same way that Ecstacy affected flyers.
As with flyers and their subversive jokes and drug connotations, Psychedelic posters appealed to the young member of the subculture through giving a feeling of exclusivity. These posters achieved this by being almost illegible. Designers of the sixties stretched and mutated type into sinuous, abstract pictures; the image would be eye catching and would draw the young person closer to it to decipher the information. This interaction gave a feeling of subcultural exclusivity because the viewer was made to feel special that they could decipher it; they recognised that this design was for them, the young, and no one else.
Psychedelia and flyers were both expressions and parallels of the music and culture they were advertising, and thus they are both products of a disillusionment of youth with government. As was discussed in Chapter 1.4, the "political and industrial reformations of the eighties generally echo the socio-political developments that occurred during the psychedelic period of 1965 - 68."(32) However, in the same way that the sixties hippy culture, music and graphic design actively opposed the status quo, Acid House found alternatives and escaped from a materialistic society. Although the graphic design of flyers had no ideals of activism, they can still be seen partly as a result of an oppressive government.
The main similarity between psychedelic posters and flyers is that they were both an integral part of their subculture and both provide a visual record of their history.
2.10 - Smile
As examined in Chapter 1.4, Acid House culture not only had parallels with psychedelia, it also borrowed from it. As far as the graphic design is concerned, it most famously, borrowed the smiley face from the sixties underground, which made a reccurence in Ibiza; DJ Danny Rampling later asked designer George Georgiou to use it on the flyer for Shoom, after which it became the recognised symbol of Acid House.(33)
This borrowing from Psychedelia continued and could be seen in all the flyers that came out with swirly patterns, flowery imagery and stretched, lazy type, but is best seen in the Spectrum flyer (plate 11): this flyer "faithfully updates the palindromic Rick Griffin eyeball."(34) Flyers borrowed from psychedelia because of the implied drug induced spiritualism that is associated with the stereotypical image of the sixties: they "give an idea of the attitudes behind them: elaborate, full colour leaflets show cosmic quasi-hippy mystical images."(35)
These flyers took the imagery of the Psychedelia into a different subculture, a different time, where the radical political implications of the style had no meaning and were viewed simply as nostalgia for an era that seemed to have the nearest comparison to what these young people were experiencing.
"Stripped of its unwholesome connotations the style becomes fit for public consumption."(36) This can be seen as a marketing strategy, selling a modern event through nostalgia for a mythological era, but is also an expression of the need of these young, British people to escape the harsh realities of present day into a brighter past.
2.11 - Piracy
"Borrowing" of visual imagery can be seen in a great deal of flyer design. The plagiarism employed in the Spectrum flyer seems insignificant when compared to the Eclipse flyer (plate 3) where a Dali painting is blatantly snatched with the tiny Eclipse logo hiding in the corner.
Designers were afforded the liberty of plagiarism because of the nature of flyers. Firstly, they often had a low or non-existent budget and so could not afford expensive illustrators to produce the kind of imagery that they wanted, or, more likely, it was easier,quicker and cheaper to plunder a found illustration. This non-reliance on professional artists meant that anyone could do it. "Pirate skills did not require art school, technical college or any form of State education."(37) Here one can see the DIY ethic behind Acid House culture taking place in its graphic design, meaning that it was not restricted to any class or any high level of corporate professionalism. Anyone, from any race, class or sex, could produce these flyers.
Secondly, designers could copy artwork because copyright laws could be avoided: the authorities "can't hold the (club) owners responsible and they have no way of finding the promoter."(38) The same copywrite infringement was employed when Acid House and dance records sampled excerpts from other artists material; in these cases, prosecution was avoided by releasing a "white label" recording through which the artist could not be traced. Far from being commercially unviable, these records, without any information about the producer whatsoever, in complete contrast to the norm of the artist being the main subject of the record's packaging, were selling because of their exclusivity and because of their pirate, illicit, anarchy. "Like sampling; acts of unauthorised appropriation are deemed hip."(39)
This samizdat, anti-establishment, quality of flyers appeals to the subculture in the same way that punk graphics of the seventies did. The kidnap ransom note typography on the Sex Pistols covers employed this kind of anarchic imagery:
"This logo," said Malcolm McLaren of Sex Pistols fame, "represented everything an establishment couldn't do. A kidnap note is associated with what people couldn't have - it's not someone's font, it's not someone's letters - its outside of that. It made you respect the outlaw and that, of course, was fabulous because it was culturally threatening."(40)
This piracy of images in flyers is seen as a negation of authoritarianism and therefore appeals to the member of the subculture because of its diversity from the mainstream.
The subcultural allure of the illicit aside, for what other reasons were designers using stolen imagery? In the Smarties flyer (plate 8) the brand logo has been used in a parody. The subversive joke employed here is in the re-use of a child's confectionery item and big corporative, brand name, in an all-night event associated with drugs. Parody has featured a lot in flyer design with corporate IDs from Daz washing powder to Vogue Magazine having been plundered over the years.
Flyers also ripped off other art work, not to make fun of it, but to borrow the manifest meanings of them. In the Eclipse flyer (plate 3) the context of Dali's painting has been changed, but it is still not a parody, neither is it nostalgia. It could have been used simply for its aesthetic value (as Dali's paintings often are). Or it could have been used for its surrealism in expression of the event's promises of dream-like escapism.
Ultimately, designers were pirating these images because they could - "because the images exist."(41)
2.12 - Visual Sampling
The sampling of sound in dance music, as examined in Chapter 1.5, was to have an equivalent in the production of flyers that would further enable designers to appropriate imagery. Instead of lifting sounds from various sources with the use of a sampler, designers were able to take graphics from visual sources and use them within their designs through the Apple Mac computer and the scanner. Although this practice was by no means exclusive to flyer design, it has been employed a great deal within this field and provides both reflection and expression of dance music. "The flyer era has spanned the phasing in of the Apple Mac as an accepted graphic design tool: most immediately, you can pull images from anywhere with the scanner, and within minutes enhance and stretch them."(42)
This visual sampling can be seen to great effect in the Time Machine flyer (plate 12) where masses of seemingly randomly selected images create a multi-layered collage. "This is the Mac as a gigantic collage machine; the flyer minces up images from the history of art, from any source in a whirligig, millennial dance."(43)
The use of collage and scanned, imagery in flyer design can be seen to be inspired by the music. Ian Wright, influential designer and illustrator in dance music culture, "loves house, hip-hop, ragamuffin rap. And he prizes the textures and thieveries made possible be sampling. "For visual types, it's so inspirational. 'Cause that message is: use the technology."(44)
2.13 - Technicolour
As technology played such an integral part in the music of Acid House, so would it be endemic to the graphic design of flyers. Use of technology can be seen in most flyers, from the computer generated fractals and synthetic colours of the Eclipse flyer (plate 10) to the multi-layered , snatched images of the Time Machine flyer (plate 12), the graphic shapes, lines and layout of the Andromeda V flyer (plate 2, plate 2.2) to the colourful computer characters of the Pandemonium flyer (plate 13)
Computers are not just the chosen method for designers to work in, computer generated art work is what the youth wants to see because it complies with their culture so readily. "Although all my pieces are airbrush illustrated," says Pez who designed the Raindance 2 flyer (plate 14), "I try to make each look as computer generated as possible because the market out there is a computer market."(45)
But, for other young designers, computers were a way to get involved in design because the technology was cheap and available, and also because they were young, free from technophobia and more likely to accept technology: "It's getting their hands on technology that has made young designers able to drive what's happening," says Ian Wright, "Kids know more about computers than adults are prepared to learn."(46)
Undoubtedly, the Apple Mac design software was the perfect tool for these young designers to find new modes of expression to match the new form of music that they were listening to. Ian Anderson of The Designers Republic, who have long been associated with youth and dance music culture in Britain, explains the freedom of creativity that the Mac brought:
"On-screen you can draw, you can create layers of intensity that would be impossible physically. If you do something you don't like, you can start again. You can explore a lot of ideas a lot quicker. The Mac gives control and the ability to create something that looks professional but a lot cheaper."(47)
2.14 - Eclectic Ephemera
The application of technology meant that the designer no longer had to have years of design experience or formal artistic training to be able to produce a decent design. "Graphics is not an old man's medium any more; the day when you sit down and draw a car is gone forever."(48)
In the same way that Acid House music artists were getting involved in production and were experimenting and innovating whilst incorporating their personal background and knowledge into their music, designers were bringing their own backgrounds and cultures into flyer design. This was taking any elitism out of the graphic design and opening up the field of possibilities, inspirations and cultural influences that flyer design could take.
This high level of eclecticism that flyer design was taking was not only brought about by technology; it was also a product of the re-uniting of disparate youth groups and cultures that late eighties dance culture effected. "Partly the consequence of the radical social mix brought to London by dancefloor culture; the subcultures absorbed each other's styles and co-opted bits and pieces from one another's worlds."(49) Flyer design was, once again, providing a true expression of the heterogeneous culture and music that it was part of.
The whole Acid House vibe was one of inclusion: the uniting of youth with a common cause, to escape from the normalities of everyday existence through dance: the breaking down of barriers set by authorities and the status quo to allow freedom, a sense of belonging and an outlet for expression, all of which was not only conveyed but celebrated in the design of flyers.
1. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.7
2. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.38
3. Sarah Thronton, Club Cultures, Polity Press, 1995, p.141
4. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.7
5. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.6
6. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.6
7. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.38
8. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.6
9. Adrian Shaughnessy, Creative Review, December, 1997, p.31
10. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.38
11. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.139
12. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.126
13. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.42
14. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.66
15. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.138
16. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.79
17. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.70
18. HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.23
19. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.98
20. Richard Norris (member of The Grid), HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.20
21. HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.23
22. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.8
23. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.8
24. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.8
25. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.79
26. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.42
27. HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.12
28. Antonio Melechi, 'The Ecstasy of Disappearance', Rave Off, Avebury, 1993, p.37
29. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.9
30. Kristian Russell, 'Lysergia Suburbia', Rave Off, Avebury, 1993, p.140
31. John Barnicoat, A Concise History of Posters, 1972, p.61
32. Kristian Russell, 'Lysergia Suburbia', Rave Off, Avebury, 1993, p.99
33. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.98
34. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.9
35. Kristian Russell, 'Lysergia Suburbia', Rave Off, Avebury, 1993, p.139
36. Hillegonda Rietveld, 'Living the Dream', Rave Off, Avebury, 1993, p.55
37. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.48
38. Sarah Thronton, Club Cultures, Polity Press, 1995, p.147
39. Sarah Thronton, Club Cultures, Polity Press, 1995, p.147
40. Creative Review, February, 1998, p.37
41. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.126
42. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.10
43. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.10
44. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.71
45. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, pp.9-10
46. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.82
47. John Savage, HighFlyers, Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1995, p.10
48. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.71
49. Cynthia Rose, Design After Dark, Thames and Hudson, 1991, p.66
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revised 24 September 2008